Choose your font:
 Arimo
 Merriweather
 Mukta Malar
 Open Sans Condensed
 Rokkitt
 Source Sans Pro


 English 
 Français 
 Português 

[Valid RSS] RSS
bar

Database - Alliance francophone pour l'accouchement respecté (AFAR)

Description of this bibliographical database (AFAR website)
Currently 2992 records
YouTube channel (tutorial)

Search results

https://afar.info/subject=midwifery training

  Facebook logo   Tweeter logo

Keywords ➡  midwifery training 

 New expert query

50 records found

 New simple query

ID

Argument

Author(s)

Title

Difficulty - Comments

URL

3036

 Display this record
While ongoing trainings offered to traditional midwives in Mexico aim at teaching them best practices, they also limit midwives’ autonomy and keep poor women’s reproductive behaviors under control.

Mounia El Kotni (2018)

Regulating Traditional Mexican Midwifery: Practices of Control, Strategies of Resistance. Medical Anthropology Cross-Cultural Studies in Health and Illness  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; public health ; midwife

easy

https://www.tandfonline.c…
https://doi.org/10.1080/0…

2954

 Display this record
The gynecological position is part of the normalization of modern medicine and childbirth today in France and is the product of a built and controlled social order

A. Massona, C. Schantz. (2018)

Position gynécologique et construction d’une vulnérabilité du corps féminin / How lithotomy position during childbirth constructs a vulnerable female body. La Revue Sage-Femme. Volume 17, Issue 3, June 2018, Pages 114–121.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; position during labor ; guidelines ; obstetric and gynecologic violence obstetric violence, obstetrical violence ; deontology ; midwife

easy

https://www.sciencedirect…
https://doi.org/10.1016/j…

2950

 Display this record
In Iceland, 6% with women had a negative experience in childbirth. The role of the midwife is identified as the most important factor of influence.

Valgerdur Lisa Sigurdardottira, Jennifer Gamble, Berglind Gudmundsdottira, Hildur Kristjansdottir, Herdis Sveinsdottire, Helga Gottfredsdottir (2017)

The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; psychology ; public health ; birth attendant ; midwife

easy

https://www.womenandbirth…

2934

 Display this record
Most women should be offered ‘midwife-led continuity of care’. It provides benefits for women and babies and we have identified no adverse effects.

Sandall, J., Soltani, H., Gates, S., Shennan, A., & Devane, D. (2016)

Midwife‐led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women.  Display this record
➡ c-section/caesarean ; midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; premature baby ; psychology ; newborn care ; iatrogeny ; obstetric and gynecologic violence obstetric violence, obstetrical violence ; guidelines ; induction of labor ; forceps delivery ; active management of labor ; pain medication ; epidural ; birthing centers ; perinatal death rates ; doula ; birth attendant ; midwife ; planned homebirth ; deontology

easy

Fifteen studies in total, 17 674 comprise this meta-analysis. High quality studies were selected for  more…

http://onlinelibrary.wile…
https://doi.org/10.1002/1…

2901
full text
(public)

 Display this record
The objective of this qualitative study is to shed light on the ins and outs of standardizing the supply of care.

Catherine Thomas (2016)

Accoucher en France aujourd’hui : Les enjeux de la profession de sage-femme et le positionnement des femmes face à la naissance médicalisée. Thèse d’anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Université de La Réunion.  Display this record
➡ survey ; midwifery training ; history, sociology ; public health ; iatrogeny ; birth attendant ; midwife

easy

https://hal.archives-ouve…

2880

 Display this record
The limited benefits of controlled cord traction (CCT) in terms of severe post-partum hemorragia would not justify the major investment which would be needed to provide training in CCT skills for birth attendants who do not have formal training.

Hofmeyr GJ, Mshweshwe NT, Gülmezoglu AM (2015)

Controlled cord traction for the third stage of labour  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; iatrogeny ; guidelines ; 3rd stage of labor ; postpartum hemorrhage ; midwife

easy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.…
https://doi.org/10.1002/1…

2986

 Display this record
Treaty of obstetrics. A large place has been made to physiology to normality in daily practice.

Loïc Marpeau, Collège National des Gynécologues et Obstétriciens Français (CNGOF), Collège national des Sages-femmes, Association française des sages-femmes enseignantes françaises (2010)

TRAITÉ D’OBSTÉTRIQUE. Elsevier Masson  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; physiology ; placenta previa/accreta ; position during labor ; premature baby ; guidelines ; public health ; maternal health ; baby’s health ; amniotomy ; episiotomy ; exams during labor ; fundal pressure ; instrumental delivery ; active management of labor ; pain medication ; oxytocin ; IV ; epidural ; rupture of membranes ; vaginal examination ; 3rd stage of labor ; dystocy ; eclampsia (pre-) ; breech presentation ; brachial plexus (birth injury)

easy

https://www.elsevier-mass…

2235

 Display this record

Christiaens W, Bracke P. (2007)

Assessment of social psychological determinants of satisfaction with childbirth in a cross-national perspective. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007 Oct 26;7:26.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; place of birth ; psychology ; midwife

easy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…
https://doi.org/10.1186/1…

3009
PDF
(public)

 Display this record
Description of fundal pressure and its presumed indications following the description of a fundal pressure with serious maternal consequences during normal delivery (directed push for non-anesthetized patient, without fetal emergency or committed expulsive reflex).

Susan Labhart (2006)

Manœuvre de Kristeller. Hebamme.ch 3/2006  Display this record
➡ ethics ; midwifery training ; traumatism ; deontology ; pain ; fundal pressure

easy

http://www.hebamme.ch/x_d…

1966
PDF
(private)

 Display this record
During the December 2005 CNGOF Days, recommendations on the clinical practice of episiotomy were released. Recommendations, to say the least, which are already raising criticism of user associations.

Sandra Mignot (2006)

La fin de l’épisiotomie ? Profession Sage-Femme, 23, mars 2006, p. 4-7.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; guidelines ; obstetric and gynecologic violence obstetric violence, obstetrical violence ; perineal/vaginal tears ; dyspareunia ; incontinence/prolapsus ; episiotomy ; risk of litigation ; deontology ; midwife

easy

https://ciane.net/2006/04…

2030

 Display this record
Comparaison des données avant et après la formation du personnel à la physiologie de l’accouchement : après le formation, diminution significative des rythmes cardiaques fœtaux pathologiques, amélioration du statut périnéal à l’accouchement (moins d’épisiotomies, moins de déchirures), sans variation significative de l’adaptation cardio-respiratoire néonatale. Amélioration significative du confort de la parturiente pendant le travail.

S. Brément, C. Giard, C. Racinet (2005)

Impact d’une formation à l’accouchement physiologique sur les résultats maternels et périnatals; Enquête de type avant/après dans une maternité de niveau 2A; La revue Sage-femme Vol 4 - N° 3 - Juin 2005 p. 115 - 123 © Masson , Paris, 2005  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; position during labor ; episiotomy ; midwife

easy

http://masson.fr/masson/p…

1308

 Display this record
l’ocytocine de plus en plus utilisée en Inde rurale lors des AADs.

Sharan M, Strobino D, Ahmed S. (2005)

Intrapartum oxytocin use for labor acceleration in rural India. {Inde}. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2005;90(3):251-257.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; duration of labour ; place of birth ; homebirth ; active management of labor ; oxytocin ; midwife

hard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

2247

 Display this record
dans une étude comparative sur les accouchements impromptus survenus hors hôpital et sur le parking de l’hôpital avec une aide des équipes médicales, les patientes ayant accouché sur le parking ont des taux significativement plus élevés de lésions périnéales du 2e degré. La présence de personnel médical lors des accouchements hors hôpital n’en a pas changé l’issue.

Eyal Sheiner , Reli Hershkovitz, Ilana Shoham-Vardi, Offer Erez, Amnon Hadar and Moshe Mazor (2004)

A retrospective study of unplanned out-of-hospital deliveries. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics Volume 269, Number 2 / January, 2004 10.1007/s00404-002-0426-0 85-88  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; place of birth ; perineal/vaginal tears ; midwife

easy

https://link.springer.com…

2031

 Display this record
Trois groupes de parturientes, le premier comprenant des femmes gardant la même position pendant le travail (décubitus dorsal et/ou latéral), le deuxième composé de parturientes alternant les positions sur la table d’accouchement, et le troisième alternant les positions et utilisant le ballon et/ou la baignoire.
Résultats : Le premier intérêt obstétrical du changement de positions pendant le travail est l’amélioration du confort des parturientes. Puis c’est la diminution du temps de travail, avec une meilleure dynamique utérine et une meilleure dilatation cervicale.

C. Paufichet (2004)

Intérêt obstétrical du changement de positions au cours du travail; La revue Sage-femme Vol 3 - N° 5 - Novembre 2004 p. 197 - 203 © Masson, Paris, 2004  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; position during labor ; midwife ; dilation

easy

http://masson.fr/masson/p…

2004

 Display this record

’FIA’ SANDIN BOJÖ Ann-Kristin ; HALL-LORD Marie-Louise ; AXELSSON Ove ; UDEN Giggi ; LARSSON Bodil Wilde (2004)

Midwifery care: development of an instrument to measure quality based on the World Health Organization’s classification of care in normal birth. Journal of clinical nursing (J. clin. nurs.). 2004, vol. 13, no1, pp. 75-83 ISSN 0962-1067  Display this record
➡ attendance ; midwife ; survey ; midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; physiology

easy

« Beaucoup de technique superflue pendant les accouchements » // Émission publique sur la  more…

http://cat.inist.fr/?aMod…

1121
PDF
(private)

 Display this record
Cette étude néerlandaise montre que les conseils des sages-femmes sont le facteur principal pour le choix de la position des femmes pendant leur accouchement ; que les femmes connaissent surtout la position en décubitus dorsal ; mais qu’elles apprécient et utilisent les informations sur d’autres positions, qui devraient donc leur être apportées au cours de la grossesse et de l’accouchement.

De Jonge A, Lagro-Janssen AL. (2004)

Birthing positions. A qualitative study into the views of women about various birthing positions. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Mar;25(1):47-55.  Display this record
➡ attendance ; midwife ; midwifery training ; physiology ; position during labor ; psychology

hard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

1118

 Display this record

Lewis L, Rowe J. (2004)

Focus on the beat: current fetal monitoring practice in low risk labour. Aust J Midwifery. 2004 Nov;17(4):6-10.  Display this record
➡ attendance ; midwife ; midwifery training ; monitoring

hard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

685

 Display this record

Parsons M, (2004)

A midwifery practice dichotomy on oral intake in labour. Midwifery 2004;20(1):72-81.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; midwife

hard

Texte en accès libre.

http://www.sciencedirect.…

684

 Display this record

Mead M, Kornbrot D. (2004)

The influence of maternity units’ intrapartum intervention rates and midwives’ risk perception for women suitable for midwifery-led care. Midwifery 2004;20(1):61-71.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; psychology ; midwife

hard

Texte en accès libre.

http://www.sciencedirect.…

683

 Display this record

Sibley L, Sipe TA. (2004)

What can a meta-analysis tell us about traditional birth attendant training and pregnancy outcomes? Midwifery 2004;20(1):51-60.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; perinatal death rates ; midwife

hard

Texte en accès libre.

http://www.sciencedirect.…

680

 Display this record

Freeman LM, Timperley H, Adair V. (2004)

Partnership in midwifery care in New Zealand. Midwifery 2004;20(1):2-14.  Display this record
➡ attendance ; midwife ; midwifery training ; ethics ; deontology

easy

Texte en accès libre.

http://www.sciencedirect.…

633
PDF
(public)

 Display this record
Formal education and training of medical staff did not influence the success rate of instrumental delivery but was associated with improved safety for both mother and baby.

Cheong YC, Abdullahi H, Lashen H, Fairlie FM. (2004)

Can formal education and training improve the outcome of instrumental delivery? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2004;113(2):139-144.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; maternal age ; perineal/vaginal tears ; instrumental delivery ; morbidity ; midwife

hard

https://www.academia.edu/…

606

 Display this record

Jesse DE, Blue C. (2004)

Mary Breckinridge meets healthy people 2010: A teaching strategy for visioning and building healthy communities. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 2004;49(2):126  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

hard

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

474
PDF
(public)

 Display this record
The main arguments against fully informing patients are that “It’s too difficult, costly, and time consuming.” But they are neither evidence based nor politically sustainable.

Smith R. (2004)

Editor’s choice. Abusing patients by denying them choice. The British Medical Journal, 328 (14 February)  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; obstetric and gynecologic violence obstetric violence, obstetrical violence ; midwife ; deontology

easy

Editorial de 2004 dans BMJ. Concerne la santé en général, sur l’exemple du dépistage du cancer  more…

Related records : #3059

http://bmj.bmjjournals.co…
https://doi.org/10.1136/b…

317

 Display this record

Kennedy HP, Shannon MT, Chuahorm U, Kathryn Kravetz M. (2004)

The landscape of caring for women: A narrative study of midwifery practice. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 2004;49(1):14  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; attendance ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

316

 Display this record

Patricia Aikins Murphy (2004)

Editorial. Midwifery: A philosophy not a function. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 2004;49(1):1.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; midwife

easy

http://www.mosby.com/scri…

278

 Display this record

Wass V, Richards T, Cantillon P. (2003)

Monitoring the medical education revolution. Editorial. The British Medical Journal. 2003;327:1362.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; ethics ; midwife

easy

http://bmj.bmjjournals.co…

277

 Display this record

Pickard S, Baraitser P, Rymer J, Piper J. (2003)

Can gynaecology teaching associates provide high quality effective training for medical students in the United Kingdom? Comparative study. The British Medical Journal. 2003;27:1389-92.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; exams during labor ; midwife

easy

mdr...

http://bmj.bmjjournals.co…

273

 Display this record

Varney Burst H, Thompson JE. (2003)

Genealogic origins of nurse-midwifery education programs in the United States. Journal of Midewifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):464.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

272

 Display this record

Lichtman R, Varney Burst H, Campau N, Carrington B, Diegmann EK, Hsia L, Thompson JE. (2003)

Pearls of wisdom for clinical teaching: Expert educators reflect. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):455.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

271

 Display this record

Walsh LV. (2003)

International service learning in midwifery and nursing education. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):449.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

270

 Display this record

Farley CL. (2003)

Service learning: Applications in midwifery education. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):444.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

269

 Display this record

Walker DS, Pohl JM. (2003)

Web-based data collection in midwifery clinical education. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):437.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

hard

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

268

 Display this record

Fullerton JT, Ingle HT. (2003)

Evaluation strategies for midwifery education linked to digital media and distance delivery technology. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):426.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

hard

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

267

 Display this record

Avery MD, Ringdahl D, Juve C, Plumbo P. (2003)

The transition to web-based education: Enhancing access to graduate education for women’s health providers. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):418.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

266

 Display this record

Camacho Carr K, Farley CL. (2003)

Redesigning courses for the World Wide Web. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003:48(6):407.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

265

 Display this record

Raisler J, O’Grady M, Lori J. (2003)

Clinical teaching and learning in midwifery and women’s health. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):398.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

264

 Display this record

Katherine Camacho Carr (2003)

Innovations in midwifery education. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2003;48(6):393.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

945

 Display this record

bij de Vaate A, Coleman R, Manneh H, Walraven G. (2002)

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of trained traditional birth attendants in the Gambia in the prevention, recognition and management of postpartum haemorrhage. Midwifery. 2002 Mar;18(1):3-11.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; placenta previa/accreta ; place of birth ; homebirth ; postpartum hemorrhage ; midwife

hard

http://www.sciencedirect.…

475
PDF
(private)

 Display this record
More and more routine interventions are being performed without evidence of their effectiveness, under pressure from the private sector, the forensic, without informed consent. Higher rates of normal childbirth would be achieved simply by changing beliefs and implementing the practice of evidence-based medicine.

Johanson R, Newburn M, Macfarlane A. (2002)

Has the medicalisation of childbirth gone too far? The British Medical Journal 2002;324:892-895.  Display this record
➡ c-section/caesarean ; duration of labour ; midwifery training ; history, sociology ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; position during labor ; psychology ; obstetric and gynecologic violence obstetric violence, obstetrical violence ; episiotomy ; active management of labor ; oxytocin ; IV ; epidural ; forceps delivery ; hormones ; monitoring ; perinatal death rates ; midwife ; deontology

easy

Related records : #3059

http://bmj.bmjjournals.co…
https://doi.org/10.1136/b…

275

 Display this record

Wilson JH, Symon A. (2002)

Clinical Risk Management in Midwifery: the Right to a Perfect Baby. Eds. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing, Oxford, UK. 2002. $27.95, Softcover.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; law ; risk of litigation ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

1367

 Display this record
Le point de vue des soignants français sur les maisons de naissance: sur les 42% ayant répondu au questionnaire, 80% ne connaissaient pas les maisons de naissance.

Viossat P, Dumitru-Daubigny L, Beaudevin C, Pons JC. (2001)

[For or against birthing centers: a survey of practitioners in the Isere area] {France}. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2001 Nov;30(7 Pt 1):688-96.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; survey ; birthing centers ; induction of labor ; post-term pregnancy ; midwife

easy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

274

 Display this record

Thompson JE, Kershbaumer RM, Krisman-Scott MA. (2001)

Educating Advanced Practice Nurses and Midwives: From Practice to Teaching. New York, Ny: Springer Publishing Company, Inc, 2001. 210 Pages. $37.95, Hardcover.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

276

 Display this record

Teijlingen EV, Lowis G, Mccaffery P, Porter M. (2000)

Midwifery and the Medicalization of Childbirth: Comparative Perspectives. Eds. Huntington, Ny: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2000. 430 Pages.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; midwife

easy

http://www2.us.elsevierhe…

1126
PDF
(private)

 Display this record
The use of nonlithotomy positions is one nontechnologic way to enhance the normal process of birth.

Hanson L. (1998)

Second-stage positioning in nurse-midwifery practices. Part 2: Factors affecting use. J Nurse Midwifery. 1998 Sep-Oct;43(5):326-30.  Display this record
➡ attendance ; midwife ; midwifery training ; position during labor ; physiology

hard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

726

 Display this record
Les sages-femmes devraient comprendre ce que l’épisiotomie représente pour les femmes.

Way S. (1998)

Social construction of episiotomy. J Clin Nurs. 1998 Mar;7(2):113-7.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; history, sociology ; episiotomy ; midwife

easy

http://www.blackwell-syne…

714

 Display this record

Carvalho I, Chacham AS, Viana P. (1998)

Traditional birth attendants and their practices in the State of Pernambuco rural area, Brazil, 1996. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998 Dec;63 Suppl 1:S53-60.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; midwife

easy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

1360

 Display this record
L’AAD est sur pour des femmes à bas risques en Nouvelle Zélande.

Gulbransen G, Hilton J, McKay L, Cox A. (1997)

Home birth in New Zealand 1973-93: incidence and mortality. {Nouvelle Zélande}. N Z Med J. 1997 Mar 28;110(1040):87-9.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; place of birth ; homebirth ; planned homebirth ; evidence-based medicine/midwifery ; perinatal death rates ; midwife

hard

Traduction sophie N, relu E.Phan

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.…

1131

 Display this record
Recommandation d’excercices doux d’assouplissements du bassin et du dos jusqu’au 4-6e mois de grossesse. Les sages-femmes devraient bien connaitre la physiologie des différentes positions d’accouchement.

Parsons C. (1994)

Back care in pregnancy. Mod Midwife. 1994 Oct;4(10):16-9.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; physiology ; position during labor ; midwife

hard

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

2242

 Display this record
Les primipares sont plus à risque de transfert en hôpital que les multipares au cours d’un AAD. Une bonne coopération est importante pour minimiser les risques.

Ford C, Iliffe S, Franklin O. (1991)

Outcome of planned home births in an inner city practice. BMJ. 1991 Dec 14;303(6816):1517-9.  Display this record
➡ midwifery training ; place of birth ; homebirth ; midwife

easy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g…

⇑ Top of page ⇑

bar

New expert query --- New simple query

Creating new record --- Importing records

User management --- Dump database --- Contact

bar

This database is managed by Alliance francophone pour l'accouchement respecté (AFAR, https://afar.info)
affiliated with Collectif interassociatif autour de la naissance (CIANE, https://ciane.net).
It is fed by the voluntary contributions of persons interested in the sharing of scientific data.
If you agree with this project, you can support us in several ways:
(1) contributing to this database if you have a minimum training in documentation
(2) or financially supporting AFAR (see below)
(3) or joining the AFAR (or another society affiliated with CIANE).
Sign in or create an account to follow changes or become an editor.
Contact afar.association(arobase)gmail.com for more information.

Donating to AFAR (click “Faire un don”) will help us to maintain and develop sites and public
databases towards the support of parents and caregivers’ informed decisions with respect to childbirth